==&nbsp Eyjafjallajökull==



2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull

Volcano plume on 17 April 2010

Volcano Eyjafjallajökull
Date 14 April 2010
Location Iceland

63°37′59″N 19°36′00″W / 63.633°N 19.6°W / 63.633; -19.6Coordinates: 63°37′59″N 19°36′00″W / 63.633°N 19.6°W / 63.633; -19.6

Impact large-scale disruption to air travel, smaller effects on farming in Iceland
Composite map of the volcanic ash cloud spanning 14–25 April 2010

SHORT TERM effects:

-> A rise in water level and temperature : On 22 March, a flow meter device situated in the Krossa glacial river (which drains Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull glaciers) in the Þórsmörk area (a few kilometres north-west of the erupting location) started to record a sudden rise in water level and in water temperature – the total water temperature rose by 6 °C (11 °F) over a two-hour period. Shortly afterward, the water level returned to normal and water temperature decreased as well.

-> Contamination of water : Samples of volcanic ash collected near the eruption showed a silica concentration of 58%—much higher than in the lava flows. Since agriculture is important in this region of Iceland, farmers near the volcano have been warned not to let their livestock drink from contaminated streams and water sources as it can cause deadly renal and hepatic effects, particularly in sheep.

-> Adverse effects on air travel : Volcanic ash is a major hazard to aircraft. Smoke and ash from eruptions reduce visibility for visual navigation, and microscopic debris in the ash can sandblast windscreens and melt in the heat of aircraft turbine engines, damaging engines and making them shut down. Hence, it is not advisable to proceed with the flight.

-> Increase in number of tourists : "Volcano tourism" quickly sprang up in the wake of the eruption, with local tour companies offering day trips to see the volcano.

LONG TERM effects :

-> Reduction in Carbon Dioxide level : The eruption may have affected atmospheric carbon dioxide levels by fertilizing oceans with iron. Observations at the Mauna Loa Observatory show increased carbon dioxide absorption for each of the three months following the eruption compared to the 30 year mean for the same months.

-> Development of a weather phenomenon : At the mouth of the crater, the gases, ejecta, and volcanic plume have created a rare weather phenomenon known as volcanic lightning (or a "dirty thunderstorm"). When rocks and other ejecta collide with one another, they create static electricity. This, with the abundant water-ice at the summit, aids in making lightning.

-> Adverse health problem : Large-scale release of sulphur dioxide into the troposphere also poses a potential health risk, especially to people with pre-existing breathing disorders.